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I Can Pray at Work but You Can’t

Published September 11, 2014 by mandyhieatt

This is a paper I wrote while working on my MBA.

I Can Pray at Work but You Can’t

ACC 538 – Law and the Accountant

Mandy Hieatt

October 20, 2013

I Can Pray at Work but You Can’t

            Although there are laws such as the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to protect against religious discrimination in the United States this is a form of discrimination that is occurring more and more as various religious groups deem other groups and religions as not equal to other established religions or not the “one true religion.” The First Amendment of the United States Constitution states “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or the press; or the right of the people peaceable to assembly, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.”

Civil rights is defined by Merriam-Webster as “the nonpolitical rights of a citizen; especially” the rights of personal liberty guaranteed to United States citizens by the 13th and 14th amendments to the Constitution and by acts of Congress (Merriam-Webster, 2013).” These rights have been expanded many times throughout American history with the most definitive being the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act is the section that states that prohibits discrimination against applicants, employees, and union member based on race, color, national origin, gender, and religion at any stage of employment according to Clarkson, Miller, and Cross (Clarkson, Miller, & Cross, 2012). According to the US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Title VII is an act “to enforce the constitutional right to vote, to confer jurisdiction upon the district courts of the United States to provide injunctive relief against discrimination in public accommodations, to authorize the attorney General to institute suits to protect constitutional rights in public facilities and public education, to extend the Commission on Civil Rights, to prevent discrimination in federally assisted programs, to establish a Commission on Equal Employment Opportunity, and for other purposes (U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 2013).”

So now it is known that the constitution protects the rights of American citizens to practice any religion they so choose and that the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Title VII prohibits employers from discriminating against any applicants, employees, or union members based on religion. But even with all these protective measures in place religious discrimination is still occurring in the work place today. Figure 1 is a chart provided by the US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission that shows an increase of over two hundred percent in religious-based charges from 1997 to 2012 (U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 2013). Ivancevich shares that the majority of religious discrimination complaints are based on employers telling employees to work on days or times that conflict with the employee’s particular religion (Ivancevich, 2010).

There is no doubt that there are cases of religious discrimination that are not protected by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act due to the fact not all employers are bound by this law. According to the US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission on employers with 15 or more employees that worked for at least 20 calendar weeks either in the current year or the previous year are forced to follow Title VII (U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 2013). Another area that Title VII does not prevent religious discrimination is in religious organizations. According to the US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission “Under Title VII, religious organizations are permitted to give employment preference to member of their own religion (U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 2013).”

Two examples of discrimination that is not protected by Title VII include the following:

An individual that is Pagan that is working for a small accounting firm that has been denied a Sabbat off, which is a Pagan holy day. Since the small accounting firm has fewer than 15 employees the employee is not protected by Title VII. At this point the only recourse for the employee is going through any state anti-discrimination laws for protection, learn to deal with the discrimination, or find another job.

An individual that is applying to work for a charity that is based in faith that is different than the individual’s faith but losing the job to a less qualified individual that is of the same faith as the charity. Due to the fact that religious organizations including charities can show preference to those of the same faith there is not much that can be done in this situation either. This is a case where qualifications do not matter but instead the idea that the other individual’s faith makes that person more qualified comes into play.

Although Title VII does not always protect employees from religious discrimination most states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rica have stringent antidiscrimination laws that do provide recourse for employees that have been discriminated against and according to Ivancevich the US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission will turn over cases to states that have strong enough laws to better handle a case, which is determined on a case-by-case evaluation (Ivancevich, 2010).

It is due to the fact that businesses with less than 15 employees that have worked at least 20 weeks in the current year or previous year are not covered by Title VII that many individuals suffer from religious discrimination. The owners of such companies are usually the individuals that initially opened the business and may not fully understand employment law. Due to the lack of knowledge of many small business owners it is vital that potential employees and current employees have some knowledge of employment law. But more importantly it is vital for the small business owner to have a Human Resources manager or supervisor that is well versed in employment law to help both the employees and the employer. Ivancevich shares that a Human Resources employee that is able to help circumvent the potential for discrimination lawsuit can prevent the costs associated with such a lawsuit (Ivancevich, 2010).

It is apparent that although all United States citizens are afforded the right to religious freedom this has not and does not prevent religious discrimination from happening. It is therefore vital to not only have an individual on staff that has a strong knowledge of employment law but also that employees are provided training so they do not discriminate, know the signs of discrimination, and the procedures for reporting discrimination. This should occur in all organizations no matter how small because even one act of discrimination can have an avalanche affect and cause untold amounts of damage to a small business and a small local economy.


Clarkson, K. W., Miller, R. L., & Cross, F. B. (2012). Business Law Text and Cases: Legal, Ethical, Global, and Corporate Environment, Twelfth Edition. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.

Ivancevich, J. M. (2010). Human Resource Management Eleventh Edition. Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin.

Merriam-Webster. (2013). Civil Rights. Retrieved from Merriam-Webster:

U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (2013). Coverage of Business/Private Employers. Retrieved from U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission:

U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (2013). Questions and Answers: Religious Discrimination in the Workplace. Retrieved from U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission:

U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (2013). Religion-Based Charges FY 1997 – FY 2012. Retrieved from U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission:

U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (2013). Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Retrieved from U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission:

Figure 1 (U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 2013)

Religion-Based Charges
FY 1997 – FY 2012

The following chart represents the total number of charges filed and resolved under Title VII alleging religion-based discrimination.

The data are compiled by the Office of Research, Information and Planning from data compiled from EEOC’s Charge Data System and, from FY 2004 forward, EEOC’s Integrated Mission System.

FY 1997 FY 1998 FY 1999 FY 2000 FY 2001 FY 2002 FY 2003 FY 2004 FY 2005 FY 2006 FY 2007 FY 2008 FY 2009 FY 2010 FY 2011 FY 2012
Receipts 1,709 1,786 1,811 1,939 2,127 2,572 2,532 2,466 2,340 2,541 2,880 3,273 3,386 3,790 4,151 3,811
Resolutions 2,137 2,247 2,187 2,230 2,217 2,729 2,690 2,676 2,352 2,387 2,525 2,727 2,958 3,782 4,608 4,219
Resolution by Types
Settlements 89 97 144 156 182 237 221 241 227 244 282 253 270 330 368 327
    % 4.2% 4.3% 6.6% 7.0% 8.2% 8.7% 8.2% 9.0% 9.7% 10.2% 11.2% 9.3% 9.1% 8.7% 8.0% 7.8%
Withdrawals with Benefits 74 81 87 94 77 100 86 101 98 118 133 138 162 203 188 171
     % 3.5% 3.6% 4.0% 4.2% 3.5% 3.7% 3.2% 3.8% 4.2% 4.9% 5.3% 5.1% 5.5% 5.4% 4.1% 4.1%
Administrative Closures 614 559 532 429 382 451 434 490 384 364 418 459 585 626 1012 621
     % 28.7% 24.9% 24.3% 19.2% 17.2% 16.5% 16.1% 18.3% 16.3% 15.2% 16.6% 16.8% 19.8% 16.6% 22.0% 14.7%
No Reasonable Cause 1265 1363 1269 1343 1349 1729 1744 1672 1442 1524 1498 1705 1805 2309 2737 2800
     % 59.2% 60.7% 58.0% 60.2% 60.8% 63.4% 64.8% 62.5% 61.3% 63.8% 59.3% 62.5% 61.0% 61.1% 59.4% 66.4%
Reasonable Cause 95 147 155 208 227 212 205 172 201 137 194 172 136 314 303 300
     % 4.4% 6.5% 7.1% 9.3% 10.2% 7.8% 7.6% 6.4% 8.5% 5.7% 7.7% 6.3% 4.6% 8.3% 6.6% 7.1%
Successful Conciliations 32 42 42 56 43 54 67 38 36 38 81 42 43 73 57 137
     % 1.5% 1.9% 1.9% 2.5% 1.9% 2.0% 2.5% 1.4% 1.5% 1.6% 3.2% 1.5% 1.5% 1.9% 1.2% 3.2%
Unsuccessful Conciliations 63 105 113 152 184 158 138 134 165 99 113 130 93 241 246 163
     % 2.9% 4.7% 5.2% 6.8% 8.3% 5.8% 5.1% 5.0% 7.0% 4.1% 4.5% 4.8% 3.1% 6.4% 5.3% 3.9%
Merit Resolutions 258 325 386 458 486 549 512 514 526 499 609 563 568 847 859 798
     % 12.1% 14.5% 17.7% 20.5% 21.9% 20.1% 19.0% 19.2% 22.4% 20.9% 24.1% 20.6% 19.2% 22.4% 18.6% 18.9%
Monetary Benefits (Millions)  $     2.2  $     2.6  $     3.1  $     5.5  $   14.1  $     4.3  $     6.6  $     6.0  $     6.1  $     5.7  $     6.4  $     7.5  $     7.6  $   10.0  $   12.6  $     9.9

The Role of Effective Management Communication in Creating and Maintaining a Cohesive Team Environment

Published September 11, 2014 by mandyhieatt

This is a paper that I wrote while working on my MBA.

The Role of Effective Management Communication

The Role of Effective Management Communication in Creating and Maintaining a Cohesive Team Environment

Mandy Hieatt

August 21, 2011

MBA 525 – Professional Development


            Effective communication is vital for managers to create and maintain a cohesive team environment. This is achieved by understanding the roles of effective communication and effective management within a company. Once those roles are understood, then it is possible to understand how managers need to communicate to create and maintain the team environment that is desired.

The Role of Effective Management Communication in Creating and Maintaining a Cohesive Team Environment

            In most companies communication is taken as a given but when the communication process is properly looked at it reveals that many companies have major problems in the area of communication. Poor communication skills lead to a loss of productivity, poor employee morale, and high turnover rates. Companies need managers who have more than good communication skills but have excellent communication skills. Excellent communication skills help create and maintain a cohesive team environment which helps companies overcome the previously stated problems.

Communication skills are taught to managers, either through formal education or on-the-job training, and most manager’s use those communication skills to let the employees under that manager know what tasks need to be completed and any other pertinent information that the manager sees fit to share with the employees. Problems arise when the communication that is needed from the manager is not what the employees are receiving. It is important to understand what the roles of communication and management are in an organization in order to understand how to better improve communication to foster a team environment.

Roles of Effective Communication Within a Company

There are four main goals of effective communication within a company: (1) present the company’s missions and goals, (2) transfer ideas and instructions, (3) create a team environment, and (4) maintain the team environment once established. These communication goals are so important that when not met they can cause decreases in productivity and employee morale while increasing employee turnover.  According to Richard Schuttler, Ph.D., a survey completed by the 2004 Economist Intelligence Unit stated that out of 273 senior executives surveyed in the United States and Canada, that 43% of the senior executives rated their respective companies as successful or very successful at carrying out strategic initiatives over a 3-year period and that the largest barrier challenge was communication between senior management and front line employees (Schuttler, 2010, p. 6). This shows just how vitally important communication is in a company.

The first goal of effective communication within a company is to present the company’s mission and goals. If employees have a better understanding of what the company’s mission and goals are, then it is easier for them to help the company perform better. However, it is the responsibility of management to ensure that the employees know exactly what the mission and goals are. Rue and Byars state that the employees need to know why the company exists, who the customers are, and what is expected of them (Rue & Byars, 2005, pp. 131-133). Stephen Robbins and Timothy Judge, in their book Organizational Behavior, Twelfth Edition, state employees perform better when the employees goals are specific and challenging and then receive feedback on their progression to the given goals (Robbins & Judge, 2007, p. 674). Without clear and precise communication of the mission and goals of a company, the employees are unable to understand the decisions of management, which can cause problems when the employees are asked to make change.

The second goal of effective communication within a company is to transfer ideas and instructions to employees. The transference of ideas is vital to a company because it allows employees to receive ideas ranging from improvement ideas to occupational safety ideas. Management needs to assure that the employees understand the ideas that are being presented to achieve buy-in, which is vitally important with improvement ideas. If the employees do not understand the ideas then the employees are more likely to resist the idea or change even if the idea or change would be beneficial to the employee. Without employee buy-in the management initiatives will fail. Instructions for employees need to also be clear and precise in order for the employee to better understand what is expected of the employee in regards to specific work requirement. Instructions such as how to perform tasks, handle shipping, processes and procedures. Richard Schuttler, Ph.D., states that when communication between management and employees is poor then it causes a stressful work environment for the employee which impacts productivity in a negative manner and increases employee turnover rates (Schuttler, 2010, p. 9). According to Rue and Byars when managers fail to communicate instructions clearly and precisely, they find that employees perform poorly because the employees are unclear of what is expected of them (Rue & Byars, 2005, p. 46). This can create quality issues which causes customer service complaints possibly leading up to a loss of customers and profits for a company.

Clear and precise communication is important when creating a cohesive team environment. Dr. Joe Pace states that teamwork is a group of people working towards the common goal of creating high-quality goods and services that will satisfy a company’s customers (Pace, 2006, p. 44). Teamwork is growing in importance in today’s workplace, and thus communication in creating a cohesive team environment is vital. According to Patterson, Grenny, McMillan, and Switzler, when communicating it is important to create safety within the conversation and team (Patterson, Grenny, McMillan, & Switzler, 2002). When safety is established within a team, the conservations that may be difficult to project are made easier because the employees feel that they are able to communicate issues and problems which are difficult to communicate to management. When teams are able to discuss difficult ideas in a safe environment it helps establish performance-related norms. Creating performance-related norms within a team creates cohesiveness, according to Robbins and DeCenzo (Robbins & DeCenzo, Supervision Today! Fifth Edition, 2007, p. 309). These performance-related norms are established through the process of communication, which makes communication vital to establishing team cohesiveness.

Once a team environment has been established it needs to be maintained, and communication is the way to maintain the team environment. Team members need to understand the role that they will play within the team. Without communication it would be impossible for a team to establish the roles that each member will play and how the team will work as a whole. It is the selection process of those roles that makes communication vital, according to Robbins and Judge, manager’s select team members to fit the needs of the group (Robbins & Judge, Organizational Behavior, Twelfth Edition, 2007, pp. 348-349). These needs have to be expressed through the processes of communication. Once the roles of a group are established and the team is in the phase where tasks are being worked on, communication becomes the most important aspect of the team. Effective communication enables a team member to let the other members know what he/she has worked on, the progress of the goals of the team, what needs continued work, and what is completed. When communication within a team breaks down, then the team is rendered ineffective and unable to complete even the simplest of tasks, thus making the team a waste of time for the members and costing the company money.

Roles of Effective Managers Within a Company

Managers within a company have four major roles to fulfill: (1) give employees directions and goals to complete, (2) keep employees satisfied in their jobs, (3) keep employee turnover rates low, and (4) keep employee productivity high. Each of these roles is vital to a company’s profit margins and need to be properly handled. When a manager fails to complete any of these roles, it is the company that suffers the consequences, and when companies lose money the employees and/or manager has the potential to be laid-off or terminated.

As stated earlier, employees work better when they are given challenging goals to work towards (Robbins & Judge, Organizational Behavior, Twelfth Edition, 2007), which increases productivity and the company profit margin. According to Aamodt, goals should posses the certain qualities that can be described using the acronym SMART: specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, and time bound (Aamodt, 2004, p. 298). With goals, directions on ways to achieve those goals need to be given to employees. According to Larry Sheeley, when employees have a good understanding of what is expected of them and how they can achieve their goals then those goals are more likely to be achieved in a timely and efficient manner (Sheeley, 2011).

Job satisfaction is vital to employee retention, so it is a manager’s responsibility to ensure that employees have job satisfaction. Rue and Byars stated that when employees are satisfied with their jobs it reduces employee turnover rates, accidents, absenteeism, grievances, tardiness, and union strikes (Rue & Byars, 2005, p. 282). When turnover rates, accidents, absenteeism, grievances, tardiness, and union strikes are reduced, it not only makes the employee more satisfied, it helps the manager to have a more satisfying and rewarding position. Happy employees are employees who are willing to work harder, work overtime, and generally help their managers, because the employees know and understand what the manager needs of them and are happy to do whatever it takes to assist. Moral Issues in Business, Tenth Edition by Shaw and Barry suggests that companies need to improve employee job satisfaction in order to help improve employee productivity, customer satisfaction, and be more competitive (Shaw & Barry, 2007, p. 343). To ensure higher productivity and customer satisfaction and lower employee turnover rates it is imperative that managers ensure that employees have high job satisfaction.

Employee turnover rates can damage a company’s ability to produce a quality product in a timely manner due to having to continually train new employees for job assignments. Many factors contribute to employee turnover rates but the largest factors are training and motivation. John M. Ivancevich concludes that when employees feel ineffective, unneeded, or unwanted, there is a higher chance of the employee quitting but proper orientation training can reduce the possibility of employees leaving the company (Ivancevich, 2010, p. 393). By providing training to employees, it enables those employees to see that management is interested in their progression within the company and that management is interested in their well being, as well the well being of the company according to Larry Sheeley (Sheeley, 2011). Employee training is another contributing factor to achieving high quality of work and higher employee productivity, enabling the employee to have a better understanding of the job that the employee is performing. Training feedback is critical to an employee learning process by allowing the employee to know what needs improved upon and what areas the employee is excelling in according to Rue and Byars (Rue & Byars, 2005, p. 259). Once training is accomplished it is important to help the employee to continue to produce a higher quality of work and productivity by providing the employee with motivation. Just as job satisfaction can reduce the employee turnover rate, so too can proper employee motivation according to Rue and Byars (Rue & Byars, 2005, p. 271). What works as employee motivation will depend on the regional culture, company culture, and the employee, so it is important that a manager understands what works as motivation in his/her company.

Keeping employee productivity high is another major role for managers. Low productivity can indicate that employees are not given proper directions and goals, not satisfied with their jobs, not trained properly, and/or not motivated enough to produce at higher levels. When managers fulfill the above mentioned roles, employees are provided with the directions, tools, and motivation to reach and maintain higher and higher productivity levels. Employees will also be more willing to adapt to changes made within the company structure when these management roles are meet.

Roles of Effective Communication in Management to Create and

Maintain a Cohesive Team Environment

Dr. Richard Schuttler uses the metaphor of a stop light when it comes to management communication and employee performance, suggesting that companies communicate at one of three levels – red (danger), yellow (caution), and green (proceed as planned) (Schuttler, 2010). When managers have poor communication skills then employees only do what is absolutely required of them and may require discipline, but when management has excellent communication skills, Dr. Schuttler suggests that employees feel valued, are properly motivated, and need little if any discipline (Schuttler, 2010). This suggests that effective communication skills are the most important skill that any manager most possess.

Figure 1 shows the communication process as presented by Patterson, Grenny, McMillan, and Switzler (Patterson, Grenny, McMillan, & Switzler, 2002, p. 185). It shows how a manager and an employee would exchange ideas and where problems can and do arise. This communication model also shows the possible effects of improper communication between two individual. There are other communication models that show the sender → message/medium → receiver, as shown by Goetsch and Davis (Goetsch & Davis, 2010, p. 237), which describes the process of communication, but not all that can go into and happen during the communication process. When the communication process does not go as planned, and one of the people in the conservation does not feel safe, then the person whose safety is at risk will either go into silence or violence, as presented by Patterson, Grenny, McMillan, and Switzler (Patterson, Grenny, McMillan, & Switzler, 2002).

Safety in communication as presented by Patterson, Grenny, McMillan, and Switzler is vitally important to an organization in which managers need to be able to create this safety with their employees (Patterson, Grenny, McMillan, & Switzler, 2002). Patterson, Grenny, McMillan, and Switzler suggest a set of five steps listed below to follow to establish safety and regain safety once it is at risk (Patterson, Grenny, McMillan, & Switzler, 2002):

  1. Step out, make it safe, then step back in
  2. Notice which safety condition is at risk
  3. Apologize when appropriate
  4. Contrast to fix misunderstandings
  5. CRIB to get mutual purpose
    1. Commit to seek mutual purpose
    2. Recognize the purpose behind the strategy
    3. Invent a mutual purpose
    4. Brainstorm new strategies

Once a manager has established safety with his/her employees it is possible for the employees to come to the manager with problems and issues that the employees might have otherwise not spoke up about. Safety is communication shows that management is able to communicate at level the green level. When employees feel safe to speak, then trust can be built within the manager’s team; which helps the team produce better ideas, better products, fewer errors, more efficient use of time, and more productive employees according to Dr. Pace (Pace, 2006, p. 49).

Understanding ideas and instructions is vital to employee performance, so it is equally important that a manager is able to communicate the ideas and instructions to ensure that the employees reach high performance levels. As stated earlier, improper communication of ideas and instructions can lead to an unsatisfactory and stressful work environment creating poor employee productivity and efficiency. Managers need to be able to communicate in person and through written forms of correspondence the ideas and instructions that employees need. To achieve this level of communication, a manager would need proper training themselves in such areas of communication like public speaking and business communications. With this type of training it is possible for a manager to more effectively communicate with his/her employees and help the employees have higher productivity, better efficiency, and more job satisfaction. Employees understanding of ideas and instructions enable those employees to work better as a team, increasing the ability of the team to achieve work goals in a timely and efficient manner.

The same training would also be useful when managers communicate to their employees about the company’s missions and goals. The missions and goals, as stated earlier, are important to an employee because it helps the employee understand why the company is in existence, who the customers are, and what is expected of them. Once again, when communication skills are used to express the company’s missions and goals, it helps provide the employees with a since of job satisfaction which increase productivity, efficiency, and quality while reducing employee turnover rates, absenteeism, and other employee issues. With knowledge of the company’s missions and goals employee teams have knowledge of what goals need to be reached to better achieve the company’s missions. This produces a cohesive team environment by giving each of the team members, and the team as a whole, multiple goals to work towards and achieve.

Change within a company, whether it be restructuring or continuous improvement projects, can be frightening for employees, which can cause employees to resist the proposed change. It is the manager’s responsibility to properly communicate the proposed changes and obtain employee buy-in. Larry Sheeley suggests that during a period of change it is vital to the success of the proposed change to involve and communicate with the employees that will be affected by that change (Sheeley, 2011). The article Change Management states the employees affected by a change need to understand, accept, and have a chance to decide how the change will be managed (Change Management). By allowing an employee to take an active role in the proposed change, it provides the employees a since of being wanted and appreciated. When employees feel wanted and appreciated they are more likely to work with the proposed change. Taking ownership of a change provides the employees the opportunity to make improvements to their job and encourages the employees to help others improve their jobs as well. This idea of helping not only helps establish a teamwork environment but also helps maintain that teamwork environment. When managers fail to properly use their communication skills to communicate to their employees about any proposed changes then the risk of failure for the proposed change increases dramatically, damaging the environment for teamwork.


It is evident that communication is not only an important part of a company culture and a vital management skill, but is necessary to create and maintain a cohesive team environment. When companies and managers fail to communicate effectively employee productivity, quality of work, job satisfaction, and willingness to work within a team environment are damaged to the point that very little can be done to repair the damage. It is up to companies to ensure that their managers have the capabilities to effectively communicate to the employees to ensure that company missions and goals are met, whether this is through formal education, or seminars that managers attend. Without a cohesive team environment companies today struggle to meet their missions and goals and sometimes end up failing all together, closing their doors and laying off all their employees.

Figure 1 – Communication Model (Patterson, Grenny, McMillan, & Switzler, 2002, p. 185)


Aamodt, M. G. (2004). Applied Industrial/Organizational Psychology, Fourth Edition. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

Change Management. (n.d.). Retrieved August 15, 2011, from

Goetsch, D. L., & Davis, S. B. (2010). Quality Management for Organizational Excellence: Introduction to Total Quality, Sixth Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Ivancevich, J. M. (2010). Human Resources Management, 11th Edition. Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin.

Pace, D. J. (2006). The Professional Development Series – The Work Place: Interpersonal Strengths and Leadership. Boston: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Patterson, K., Grenny, J., McMillan, R., & Switzler, A. (2002). Crucial Conversations: Tools for Talking When Stakes are High. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Robbins, S. P., & DeCenzo, D. A. (2007). Supervision Today! Fifth Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. A. (2007). Organizational Behavior, Twelfth Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Rue, L. W., & Byars, L. L. (2005). Management: Skills and Application. Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin.

Schuttler, P. R. (2010). Laws of Communication: The Intersection Where Leadership Meets Employee Performance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Shaw, W. H., & Barry, V. (2007). Moral Issues in Business, Tenth Edition. Belmont, CA: Thomson Higher Education.

Sheeley, L. D. (2011, August 2). Communication at Your Workplace. (M. Hieatt, Interviewer)